President Lamar`s Indian policy succeeded in expanding the western border and opening up Cherokee lands in East Texas to white settlement. Most Texans approved of Lamar`s policy of banishing peaceful tribes to reservations and actively fighting aggressive tribes. Lamar`s achievements, however, came at a huge price. During his two years in office, Lamar spent $2.5 million on Indian affairs. In contrast, Sam Houston had spent only $190,000 on Indian affairs during his first term as president. This financial debacle contributed to Sam Houston`s return to the presidency in late 1841. Click on the image to enlarge it and get a transcript. In 1844, Sam Houston met with Comanche leaders, including Buffalo Hump, and attempted to establish a border that would allow the Comanches to move while guaranteeing peace to the Texans. In this idea, Houston encountered resistance from the Indians and the Texas Congress. Click on the image to enlarge it and get a transcript. President Lamar`s campaigns had driven the caddos out of East Texas. They joined the tattered remains of the Shawnee, Delaware, and other tribes at the Three Forks of the Trinity, where they raised and traded buffalo robes.
In 1841, the Texas Rangers burned down their village. In this letter, a group of Muskogee Indians, probably the Pakana Muskogee, who live in present-day Polk County, urged the Caddos to make peace with the Texans. At the same time, Houston has launched diplomatic initiatives to bring peace to the border. Caddos were the first to respond to these openings. In August 1842, Texas concluded a treaty with the caddos, which in turn persuaded representatives of other tribes to attend a series of larger meetings known as the Tehuacana Creek Councils. In March 1843, representatives of the Delawares, Chickasaws, Wacos, Tawakonis, Kichais, Anadarkos, Hainais, Biloxis, Cherokees, and others met with Texas officials. In the fall of the same year, an important council at Fort Bird led to a treaty ratified by the Texas Senate and signed on February 3, 1844 (see Texas Treasures for more information). Texas Indian Papers, Volume 1, #110. Letter to the chiefs of the Caddo des Muskogee, July 20, 1842. Texas Indian Papers, Volume 2, #75.
Protocol of the Council at the Brazo Waterfalls, October 7, 1844. Texas Indian Papers, Volume 2, #52. Letter from Thomas G. Western to Benjamin Sloat, July 27, 1844. . The treaty between the Native American tribes and the Republic of Texas guaranteed the end of all hostilities between them and the establishment of good trade relations between them. . Click on the image to enlarge it and get a transcript. The Tehuacana Creek Councils were meetings between Texas officials and Native American officials. The first part of the series began in the spring of 1843 near the Torrey Brothers trading post south of present-day Waco.
Houston also moved to repair fences with the Comanches. In August 1843, a temporary treaty led to an armistice between the Comanches and the Texans, and in October the Comanches agreed to meet with Houston and try to negotiate a treaty similar to the one just signed at Fort Bird. In 1844, Buffalo Hump and other Comanche leaders signed a treaty on Tehuacana Creek in which they agreed to extradite white prisoners and stop looting the Texas colonies. In return, the Texans would stop military action against the tribe, establish more trading posts, and recognize the border between Texas and the Comanchería. Comanche allies, including the Wacos, Tawakonis, Kichais, and Wichitas, also agreed to join the treaty. However, the border provision was removed by the Texas Senate in the final version, which quickly led to a resumption of hostilities. In this section: Expulsion of the Cherokees – The Comanche War – Treaty Negotiations – Trade Next Section – Table of Contents – HOME Click on the image to enlarge and get a transcript. Indian Commissioners James C. Neill, Edwin Morehouse, and Thomas Smith held a council with the Comanches and other tribes at a trading post on Tawakano Creek in September 1845. The commissioners distributed gifts, negotiated the return of stolen property, and warned the Indians to stop their raids on the settlements. The contract also guaranteed that neither party would settle in the territory of the other party.
The right option is B.a. That Anglo-American settlers and Native Americans would not do business. The Treaty of Tehuacana Creek was the treaty signed on October 9, 1844 between the Republic of Texas and native American tribes. The tribes involved in the treaty were the Comanches, Keechi, Waco, Caddo, Anadarko, Ioni, Delaware, Shawnee, Cherokee, Lipan Apache, and Tawakoni. Click on the image to enlarge it and get a transcript. .